Heifers over one year old can be fed only roughage if very good quality roughage is available. In addition, licking stones containing calcium, phosphorus and minerals should always be kept in front of them. Heifers should gain 700-800 g per day during this period.
For heifers to be used in the first mating at 15 months, it should be aimed to reach a weight of 350 kg at this age. If the growth is not sufficient, some compound feed is given. Heifers with energy, phosphorus and vitamin A deficiency do not show signs of heat. For heifers, leguminous or leguminous-wheat mixed hays are an excellent source of roughage. Especially, early mowed grass has higher nutrient content than late mown grass.
Corn silage is a good source of roughage for heifers over one year old. However, it should not be given to heifers without limits. Excess energy causes them to be fat. Heifers can be given 10-15 kg of corn silage.
Even though corn silage is rich in energy, it is poor in terms of protein, calcium and phosphorus. For this reason, the compound feed of heifers fed corn silage as roughage should mostly consist of oilseed meals such as protein-rich soybean and cottonseed meal. If corn silage is given with some alfalfa hay, it is fortified with protein and calcium.
While giving compound feed to heifers, the amount and protein content to be given vary according to the type and quality of the forage given.
Prediction of Peak Level of Cows:
On the 5th day after birth, 12-13 liters of excess milk expressed is the peak level. For example; A cow that gives 20 liters of milk 5 days after birth will reach the peak level with 20+12/13=32-33 liters.
This figure is 18 kg for heifers that gave birth for the first time. Example: 20+18=38 kg. peak level
Importance: If this amount cannot be reached, it means “insufficient energy problem”.
This situation; In addition to not reaching the desired level in milk yield, it indicates that there may be a problem in conceiving the cow again, that the ration should be controlled especially in terms of energy or that energy supplements should be given.
POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED WHEN FEEDING DRY COWS:
• The ration should be balanced in terms of protein, energy, cellulose, vitamins and minerals.
• Cows in dry conditions should have a walking area and should be allowed to roam.
• Cows in dry conditions should not be fatter than those in lactation.
• Grain feeds should be restricted until the day before birth, but should be gradually given again fifteen days before birth.
• Dry grass should be given, silage should not be given.
• The roughage-concentrated feed balance should be provided in the total ration.
• Peak lactation Concentrated feed should be reduced and the cows should be prevented from becoming fat after the level of pregnancy has passed and pregnancy has occurred.
• The dry period of the cows is normally 50-70 days. It should be noted that the dry period is not long.